Built-up areas representation on topographic map
Content rules of topographic maps
Digital topographic map and its requirements
Growth representation on topographic maps
Hydrography representation on topographic map
Object representation on topographic map
Principles of digital topographic map classification
Programs for working with raster maps
Road representation on topographic map
Soil representation on topographic map
The notion of a map
The process of digital topographic maps creation
Object representation on topographic map
The completeness of locality representation on a map
The main elements of locality are reflected on topographic maps: relief, hydrography, growth and soil, built-up area, road network, boundaries, industrial, agricultural, social and cultural and other objects. The larger the scale is the more objects and details are showed on map. Herewith with a view to improve pictorial rendition cartographic generalization is carried out, which means, that all objects of secondary significance and of small size are not shown on maps.
The completeness of objects representation of some locality depends on geographical peculiarities of mapping territory. That's why, for example, wells in lived- in area with well developed river and channel network are not of important significance and on maps with scale of 1:100000 and smaller, as a rule, are not shown. In deserted and semi-deserted areas wells acquire great importance and are obligatory shown on maps with the scale of 1:200000 and larger. On small-scaled maps the completeness of representation is carried out by means of generalization of objects contour outlines, combination of several objects in one unit.
Cartographic conventional signs
Cartographic conventional signs are represented as designations of different objects ant its qualitative and quantitative characteristics. Conventional signs are standard and obligatory for all departments and establishments of USSR that are engaged with map creation. Conventional signs of one and the same objects on all large-scaled maps are the same outlines and coloring, but differ in size. For each group of homogeneous objects a common conventional sign, as a rule, is fixed and it defines the class of objects. It usually has simple outline, which is convenient for drafting and memorizing. A conventional sign corresponds by its illustration and color with the depicted locality object.
Cartographic conventional signs according to the function geometric qualities are divided into three types: linear, out-scaled and areal. Except conventional signs there are some signs on maps, that elucidate kind or type of depicted on the map objects and its qualitative or quantitative characteristics.
Linear cartographic conversional signs
Linear cartographic conversional signs depict objects of linear character, the length of which becomes apparent in the scale of a map, road, oil-pipe line, power line, etc.
Out-scaled cartographic conventional signs
Cartographic out-scaled conventional signs depict objects, the square of which is not presented in the scale of a map. The position of the object on map is defined: in the center of a sign, that has symmetrical form; in the middle of a sign base with wide bottom; in the top of a sign's angle with the bottom in the form of a right angle; in the center of lower figure sign, that represent a combination of several figures.
Region cartographic conventional signs
Region cartographic conventional signs are filled out the square of the objects depicted in the scale of a map. Region signs, drawn inside object's outline (of marshes, forest tracts, gardens, etc.) do not indicate its position on the locality.
Explanatory signs give additional characteristics of objects: proper object names, its function, its qualitative or quantitative characteristics. Explanatory signs are sometimes accompanied by conventional signs, for example, while defining forests, marking the direction of water flow in rivers, the depth of marshes. Explanatory signs may be full or brief.
Topographic maps have one coloring typography for maps of all scales. The color in certain degree corresponds with the real coloring of objects in summer time. In black color - earth roads, boundaries, different buildings, in blue color - bodies of water, in brown - relief and sandy ground, in green - the growth. The conventional signs of the most important objects (cities, main roads) are shaded with orange color.