Radical change in the views on military use of maps in Europe was caused by a new system of tactics. It consists in usage against linear pattern of the enemy extended forward order of shooters, followed by a martial column. In the beginning of 19th century European countries quickly trained their armies on a new pattern and organized a special military topographic service.
A new problem arose in regard of depicting relief. Large-scale maps without representation of relief details became almost useless to the army. Maps outdated in technical parameter. In the second half of the 19th century topographic maps of Europe have found new applications in engineering, in railway construction, geological survey, etc. and thus they should have geometrically accurate rendition of relief through replacement of strokes by horizontals. The development of artillery weapons generated a need to determine on topographic maps along with the distance - the height of goals. Thus, it was necessary to repeat the surveys to meet new demands.
Great influence on the improvement of maps and cost-cutting of the print in Europe had an introduction of photographic equipment and lithography (printing from flat plates) instead of expensive and time-consuming engraving, in which the printing plate was produced manually by cutting the chart pattern on the metal. The transition to lithography allowed making multicolor maps.
As a result, during the second half of the 19th century many European countries began the second round of topographical surveys.
Major advance in the development of military cartography has been made in the 19th century in Russia. Triangulation, topographic progression serves as a source for the compilation and publication of new maps, among which the most prominent is a three-verst map of European Russia, launched in 1845.