4th December, 1674 Marquette founded the first European settlement
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September, 1856 Semenov-Tyan-Shan reached Tien Shan
Peter Petorovich Semenov-Tyan-Shan graduated from the University of St. Petersburg in 1849. He was elected a member of the Geographical Society. He translated into Russian work of the famous German geographer Carl Fetter "Geography of Asia", to practically prepare for the research of the mountains. Semenov-Tyan-Shan was long dreaming about an expedition to the Tien Shan.
And in the spring of 1856 expedition led by Petr Petrovich started to the Tien Shan. In late August, he arrived in the village Faithful (now Almaty) in the foot Trans-Ili Alatau - on the map it is clear that it is the eve of the Tien Shan.
In early September, a scholar on horseback passed through yet untrodden steeps Kunchev Alatau. A week later, a detachment penetrated to the eastern tip of Lake Issyk-Kul, and hence Peter saw his dream - "Celestial Mountains".
In late September, he went to the western shore of the lake and found that Chu River originates in one of the valleys from the slopes of the Tien Shan.
Next June, the researcher entered into the heart of the Tien-Shan. The expedition crossed the inner region of the Tien Shan, opening the upper river Naryn - source Syr-Darya.
Last campaign in July 1857 had a great success - crossing Kok-Jar. Peter has penetrated into the heart of "Celestial Mountains" and approached his main ridge - thepeak of Khan Tengri ("The Lord of the sky"). Then they hit largest glacier of these mountains Sarydzhaz (later named after him) and found that the eternal snow level in the Tien Shan is significantly higher than in the Caucasus and Alps. Scientist explained it by the fact that it is the result of a little damp air inland regions of Asia, far from the oceans.
He argued that the Tien Shan - not young volcanic, but very ancient fold-fault-mountains. There were a lot of glaciers n Tien-Shan. He studied 20 passes over the mountain.
In 1860, Peter Petrovich was elected chairman of the department of physical geography, and in 1873 - Vice-President of the Geographical Society.
This post he held until his death in 1914.
The merits of the researcher in the study of the Tien Shan were so great that in 1906 (to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of his outstanding travel) to his name Semenov was added the word Tien Shan.
On the map you can find a number of geographical objects in Central and Central Asia, in the Caucasus, Alaska and Svalbard, and about 100 new forms of plant and animal species, named in honor of Semenov-Tyan-Shan.This Day in History 05-09-2014