4th December, 1674 Marquette founded the first European settlement
19th November, 1875 was born Hiram Bingham
18th November, 1832 was born Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld
14th November, 1963 the island Surtsey was founded
11th November, 1729 was born Louis Antoine comte de Bougainville
11th May, 1813 started an expedition through the Blue Mountains
On the 11th of May, 1813 Gregory Blekslend, William Wentworth and William Lawson, accompanied by four assistants went through the Blue Mountains. Today, this route can be overcome by car in just one hour. But two years ago, the expedition took twenty days to cross the highlands.
Topographic map shows that the Blue Mountains are part of the Great Dividing Range and represent a vast mountainous area of more than 1400 sq. km, the wall rises to Sydney and extends 50 km to the west. High mountains about 1190 - 1360m above sea level deep canyons slashed from 300 to 800 m.
Name the Blue Mountains appeared because of the specific blue haze, which is caused by the appearance of evaporation of eucalyptus. So far away mountains seem not just blue but ultramarine blue.
For four decades , since 1770, when Captain Cook landed on an unknown continent, the Blue Mountains were considered insurmountable barrier for researchers. Over time, pastures for cattle were deficient. Six expeditions tried to find a way out new lands, but all attempts were unsuccessful.
Drought in 1813 resulted in a massive loss of livestock. Then three farmers \ accompanied by three servants and Hunter James Burns with five dogs and four horses went in search of new pastures. The path was not easy: dense chaparral literally had to hack with an ax, the trail ran along the rocks and cliffs. Travelers are not diluted at night bonfire, fearing an attack natives. But all efforts were not in vain . After 20 days they came to the valley.
Discoverers entered in the history of Australia and now on the map of New South Wales you can find their names in the names of mountains, waterfalls, settlements.
After the expedition began a large-scale development of the area of the Blue Mountains. In 1814 by route of pioneers was built a road. In 1850 measured life in the Blue Mountains was broken by "gold fever ". Soon horse transport was unable to deliver all transport passengers. In 1867 railway was built.
In 1879 Katakumbe began in coal mining, which rose from the gorge using (mountain railway tracks degree slope reaches 50,7 º). By the way, the road to this day operates , however, as an attraction for tourists.This Day in History 11-05-2014