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On Pluto discovered water ice and blue "sky"


More recently, scientists believed that water in liquid form or in the form of ice in space occurs very rarely. However, in the past decade, studies have shown the opposite - in the same solar system it is much easier to name the objects, where the water in one form or another, than to enumerate planets, satellites and asteroids, where there is no water. Now astronomers have found water ice in rather large quantities on Pluto. In addition, it was found that the haze, which the New Horizons took off while flying over planetoid, is blue.

The particles that make up the haze are gray or reddish. But these particles scatter the blue color in a special way, and that attracted the attention of scientists. This blue color lets us know the size and composition of the particles that make up the haze. Generally blue color appears when sunlight disperses by very small particles. On Earth, the role of such particles plays the nitrogen molecule. On Pluto, these particles are larger, but still very small, we call them tholins.

A theoretical model explains the formation of tholins by dissociation and ionization of molecular nitrogen and methane by high-energy particles and solar radiation, the formation of ethylene, ethane, acetylene, hydrogen cyanide, and other small simple molecules and small positive ions, further formation of benzene and other organic molecules, their polymerization and formation aerosol heavier molecules which are condensed and brought to the planetary surface.

Tholins, formed at low pressure, tend to contain nitrogen atoms in the inner part of the molecule, whereas tholins, formed under high pressure are more likely to locate the nitrogen atoms on the ends of a molecule. There is an assumption that the development of life on Earth in the early stages, may be influenced by the comets with a high content of tholin, bringing raw material necessary for the development of life.

As mentioned above, the second significant discovery is the discovery of water on Pluto. Clearly, in the form of water ice. Water was found in the data received from the instrument Ralph.
pluto has ice water

Most of the water was in the areas that on the pictures of Pluto appear to be reddish or red. Scientists are surprised of the water color. So far, experts do not put forward any clear theory to explain this fact.

Digital cartography and GPS navigation 09-10-2015