Built-up areas representation on topographic map
Content rules of topographic maps
Digital topographic map and its requirements
Growth representation on topographic maps
Hydrography representation on topographic map
Object representation on topographic map
Principles of digital topographic map classification
Programs for working with raster maps
Road representation on topographic map
Soil representation on topographic map
The notion of a map
The process of digital topographic maps creation
Built-up areas representation on topographic map
According to the character of population production activity and the number of population, built-up areas are divided into cities, urban-type communities, communities under industrial enterprises, railway stations and countries. Among of all these types of built-up areas, cities are the most important one. Cities can be large - with the population more than 100 000 people, medium - with the population from 50 000 till 100 000 people and small - less than 50 000 people.
The main city characteristics that influence on conducting military operation are square and configuration of built-up area, locality characteristics within the precincts and approaches of city, character of layout, building density, presence of underground constructions.
Regular planning is characterizing by straight streets and estates geometrically of regular shape, which can be right-angled, radial and combined. Right-angled layout is characterizing by presence of estates, bounded by system of streets and alleyways crossed at right angle. Radial layout means that main streets go from the centre to the outskirts round the radius, and intermediate - round closed graphs. System of streets and estates can be taking into consideration while planning military operations in a city. Streets are usually used as main ways of maneuvers and military operations, and right location of estates and junctions raises its significance as main reference points.
Irregular planning is characterizing by narrow streets and estates of awkward shape. Such a layout strongly embarrasses maneuvers of attacking troops.
Combined planning is typical for cities that have old part with irregular layout and new part (mainly outskirts) with regular layout.
Planning of urban estates can be solid (without breaches between fronts of detached buildings), compact (with little space between buildings), dispersed (when building are situated far from each other and are not connected). Compact and dispersed planning is typical for small and medium towns, suburbs and countries. A great significance for conducting military operations have various underground constructions (underground, wastewater and supply pipes, tunnels, underground storehouses, basements, etc.), which can used as cover by units in order to fulfill operation and strengthen city defense. Built-up areas while being represented on topographic maps are divided according to the type, population and political importance. Type and population of built-up areas are showed on topographic maps by means face.
Political importance of built-up areas is represented by means of accentuation of the capital of the state, towns and built-up areas where local government bodies are situated. Capitals and towns are marked out by means of face and size of type of its name signature. Centers of district areas and settlements are represented by means of conventional shortening of its names.
All built-up areas are showed, as a rule, on maps with scale 1:25000 - 1:200000. Separate built-up areas with population less than 100 000 people are showed without writing its name on maps with scale 1:100000 and 1:20000 of highly populated areas. Density of representation of built-up areas on maps with scale 1:500000 and 1:1000000 is determined according to the nature of the region, density of built-up areas, its size and political importance. All inhabited and uninhabited building, destroyed and dilapidated built-up areas, and separate building (ruins), which have reference points are represented in thinly populated areas.
While mapping cities, urban villages and countries with quarterly and coursed planning, closely built estates and parts of estates are marked out when the distance between them is less than 50 meters. Closely built estates where there are more than 50% fireproof buildings (stony, brick, ferroconcrete) are marked out by means of background stain of orange color, with not fireproof buildings ( wooden, pise, adobe) by means of background stain of yellow color on maps with scale 1:25000 and 1:50000. While depicting closely built estates at the background stain of orange or yellow color all building, as a rule, are shown. Closely built estates of cities on maps with scale 1:50000 and 1:100000 are shown without detailed representation of building up; against the background of yellow and orange colors on map with scale 1:50000 and against the background of orange color on map with scale 1:100000 only the most prominent and the largest industrial building are represented, that are important as reference points.
Closely built estates of small cities, urban villages and countries with quarterly planning are shown on map with scale 1:50000 with detailed representation of building up in the same way as on maps with scale 1:25000. On maps with scale 1:100000 building up in estates like these are shown with covered figures and stripes in which representation of closely situated buildings are united. Herewith not built over areas within estates and characteristic breaches in planning along the streets are marked.
While mapping urban villages with quarterly and coursed planning closely built quarters are represented only on maps with scale 1:25000 and 1:50000. Buildings are represented according to the type of material they are built from. Destroyed and dilapidated buildings are also shown on map.
Inhabited and uninhabited buildings in quarters of built-up areas with unsystematic planning or just separately situated buildings are shown on map with representation of its size and configuration. Prominent fireproof buildings, situated in or outside built-up areas if they are good reference points are represented on maps with scale 1:25000 adn1:50000 by means of a special conventional sign. While the prominent building is 50 meters or more they are represented with signature of its height. Separately situated courtyards are represented on maps by means of conventional signs, where one can see rectangle that mean locality of house.