Cartographic maps of ancient East
Cartographic maps of ancient Rome
Cartographic pictures of primitive people
Cartography and geography in ancient Greece and Hellenistic countries
Cartography and geography in Armenia and in countries of Arab Caliphate
Cartography in slave-holding China
The development of Russian Topography
The development of Russian Topography
The first information about locality research appeared in ancient documents of China, Egypt and Babylon. In Russia the first measurement belongs to 1068 year, when in Tamana the width of Kerchanski channel was first measured. The first decree of boundary (land boundaries) was published in "Russkaya Pravda" in ХII century. In ХVII century the first land description with measurement description was created (schemes of built towns and burgs in Siberia, schemes of some rivers with approximate distance between them- were made by Petlin in 1618).
First measure devices were invented in ХVII century, called "level'. In next century theodolite with optic telescope was invented by english mechanic Ramsden.
The greatest cartographic material of that time was "Drawing book of Siberia" formed by russian historian and geographer S. Remezov together with his four children. The book represented first russian Atlas and contained 23 pages, which gave versatile characteristics of natural peculiarities of Siberia ant its economic state.
But great contribution to the development of russian cartography and mapping was done by Peter I. Having spacious mind of a statesman he while establishing the army provided survey supplying of the army in "Army statue", published in Russia in 1716 year. The statue changed general's responsibilities (one of the highest position in russian army). Earlier general's responsibilities include: map study, organization of army location and movement, map preparation, guidance of defense building. Afterwards it was enlarged with such responsibilities as leadership of scout, bridge building, recording of military campaigns.
Studying science, including geodesy, abroad initiated by Peter I from 1697 was very expensive for the government. That's why in 1701 year in Moscow was established the school of mathematics and navigation. In this school many sciences were taught, but geodesy was studied only by the most intelligent students.
In 1715 by Peter I initiation was opened Naval Academy, where there was a geodesic class for 30 students (300 students studied in the Academy).
In 1705 the first printing house of Kupriyanov started to work in Moscow, which had played a very big role in creating first russian topographic maps.
Due to the Peter I and his associates efforts in the beginning of XVIII century in Russia was organized preparing of topography specialists, created map base, published not a few geographic and naval maps. But at the same time the general geographic map of Russian Empire ant topographic maps, the creation of which was planned by Peter I, still couldn't be realized.
All these intensions were carried out only in 1734 year. Ivan Kirilov russian geographer and cartographer intended to create a complete Atlas of Russian Empire in three volumes with 120 maps in each. But russian bureaucracy hampered to realize his intention. Kirilov was forced to reject from his idea to create a complete Atlas and in 1734 year he created a shortened Atlas in Latin, which included 14 maps of districts and general map of Russian Empire with the scale 285 versts in inch. Maps were engraved and published in the publishing house of Kupriyanov.
A geographic department in Academy of Sciences was opened in 1739 year, at the head of which was Leonard Eiler (a great mathematician, physician, astronomer, the member of Petersburg Academy of Sciences). He was responsible for creation of Atlas and a general geographical map of Russian Empire. The Atlas was created in 1745 year. It consisted of 20 maps: a general geographical map of Russian Empire (the scale was 200 versts in inch), 16 of European Russia (the scale was 35 versts in inch) and 6 maps of Siberia (the scale was nearly 89 versts in inch).
Main events in topography
1796 year - when country was ruled by Pavel I the retinue of his majesty was established was included in his own drawing Map Depot, which was named in 1797 in Prussian manner.
1812 year - the Map Depot was renamed in Military Topographic Depot, which was subordinate to military minister.
1822 year was established the Cabinet of topographers. The Head of the cabinet was the major general - F.F. Shubert.
1866 year the reorganization of russian military topographic service was carried out. In the staff of the main headquarter a new military topographic department was established and cartographic institution attached to it. In some military spheres were established military topographic departments.
1919 (15 of March) year the decree of establishment the High Geodesic Control, which was attached to Scientific-technical department of High Council of National economy was issued by V. Lenin.
1940 year - an accurate mathematical figure - earth ellipsoid was grounded by the professor F. Krasovski.
1945 year - the creation of topographic maps with the scale of 1:0000000, which cover the whole territory of the country, was finished.
1946 year - the decree of Minister Counsel of USSR № 760 enacted the Baltic frame of reference.